Corporal Punishment and Low Income Mothers: The Role of Family Structure, Race, and Class in America


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Similarly, those who are cohabitating are more likely than those who are married to experience IPV Stets and Straus Other researchers have found that the rate of IPV doubles for women in low-income disadvantaged areas when compared to IPV experienced by women who reside in more affluent areas Benson and Fox Overall, women ages twenty to twenty-four are at the greatest risk of nonfatal abuse Catalano Accurate statistics on IPV are difficult to determine, as it is estimated that more than half of nonfatal IPV goes unreported.

It is not until victims choose to report crimes that patterns of abuse are exposed. Most victims studied stated that abuse had occurred for at least two years prior to their first report Carlson, Harris, and Holden Sometimes abuse is reported to police by a third party, but it still may not be confirmed by victims. A study of domestic violence incident reports found that even when confronted by police about abuse, 29 percent of victims denied that abuse occurred. Surprisingly, 19 percent of their assailants were likely to admit to abuse Felson, Ackerman, and Gallagher According to the National Criminal Victims Survey, victims cite varied reason why they are reluctant to report abuse, as shown in the table below.

The majority of abuse takes place between the hours of 6 p. Many perpetrators of IVP blame alcohol or drugs for their abuse, though studies have shown that alcohol and drugs do not cause IPV, they may only lower inhibitions Hanson IPV has significant long-term effects on individual victims and on society. Studies have shown that IPV damage extends beyond the direct physical or emotional wounds.

Extended IPV has been linked to unemployment among victims, as many have difficulty finding or holding employment.

Additionally, nearly all women who report serious domestic problems exhibit symptoms of major depression Goodwin, Chandler, and Meisel Female victims of IPV are also more likely to abuse alcohol or drugs, suffer from eating disorders, and attempt suicide Silverman et al. IPV is indeed something that impacts more than just intimate partners. In a survey, 34 percent of respondents said they have witnessed IPV, and 59 percent said that they know a victim personally Roper Starch Worldwide Many people want to help IPV victims but are hesitant to intervene because they feel that it is a personal matter or they fear retaliation from the abuser—reasons similar to those of victims who do not report IPV.

Children are among the most helpless victims of abuse. In , there were more than 3. Three-fifths of child abuse reports are made by professionals, including teachers, law enforcement personal, and social services staff. The rest are made by anonymous sources, other relatives, parents, friends, and neighbors. Child abuse may come in several forms, the most common being neglect Some children suffer from a combination of these forms of abuse.

The majority Infants children less than one year old were the most victimized population with an incident rate of This age group is particularly vulnerable to neglect because they are entirely dependent on parents for care. Some parents do not purposely neglect their children; factors such as cultural values, standard of care in a community, and poverty can lead to hazardous level of neglect.

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If information or assistance from public or private services are available and a parent fails to use those services, child welfare services may intervene U. Department of Health and Human Services. The Casey Anthony trial, in which Casey was ultimately acquitted of murder charges against her daughter, Caylee, created public outrage and brought to light issues of child abuse and neglect across the United States.

Infants are also often victims of physical abuse, particularly in the form of violent shaking. Other stress factors such as a poor economy, unemployment, and general dissatisfaction with parental life may contribute this type of abuse. While there is no official central registry of shaken-baby syndrome statistics, it is estimated that each year 1, babies die or suffer serious injury from being shaken Barr Physical abuse in children may come in the form of beating, kicking, throwing, choking, hitting with objects, burning, or other methods.

Injury inflicted by such behavior is considered abuse even if the parent or caregiver did not intend to harm the child.

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Other types of physical contact that are characterized as discipline spanking, for example are not considered abuse as long as no injury results Child Welfare Information Gateway This issue is rather controversial among modern-day people in the United States. While some parents feel that physical discipline, or corporal punishment, is an effective way to respond to bad behavior, others feel that it is a form of abuse.

According to a poll conducted by ABC News, 65 percent of respondents approve of spanking and 50 percent said that they sometimes spank their child. Tendency toward physical punishment may be affected by culture and education. Those who live in the South are more likely than those who live in other regions to spank their child. Those who do not have a college education are also more likely to spank their child Crandall Currently, 23 states officially allow spanking in the school system; however, many parents may object and school officials must follow a set of clear guidelines when administering this type of punishment Crandall Studies have shown that spanking is not an effective form of punishment and may lead to aggression by the victim, particularly in those who are spanked at a young age Berlin Child abuse occurs at all socioeconomic and education levels and crosses ethnic and cultural lines.

Introduction

Just as child abuse is often associated with stresses felt by parents, including financial stress, parents who demonstrate resilience to these stresses are less likely to abuse Samuels Young parents are typically less capable of coping with stresses, particularly the stress of becoming a new parent. Teenage mothers are more likely to abuse their children than their older counterparts.

Children born to mothers who are fifteen years old or younger are twice as likely to be abused or neglected by age five than are children born to mothers ages twenty to twenty-one George and Lee Drug and alcohol use is also a known contributor to child abuse. Children raised by substance abusers have a risk of physical abuse three times greater than other kids, and neglect is four times as prevalent in these families Child Welfare Information Gateway Other risk factors include social isolation, depression, low parental education, and a history of being mistreated as a child. Approximately 30 percent of abused children will later abuse their own children Child Welfare Information Gateway The long-term effects of child abuse impact the physical, mental, and emotional wellbeing of a child.

Injury, poor health, and mental instability occur at a high rate in this group, with 80 percent meeting the criteria of one or more psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, or suicidal behavior, by age twenty-one. Abused children may also suffer from cognitive and social difficulties.

Behavioral consequences will affect most, but not all, of child abuse victims. Children of abuse are 25 percent more likely, as adolescents, to suffer from difficulties like poor academic performance and teen pregnancy, or to engage in behaviors like drug abuse and general delinquency.

They are also more likely to participate in risky sexual acts that increase their chances of contracting a sexually transmitted disease Child Welfare Information Gateway Other risky behaviors include drug and alcohol abuse. As these consequences can affect the health care, education, and criminal systems, the problems resulting from child abuse do not just belong to the child and family, but to society as a whole.

Family Values

While divorce rates have decreased in the last twenty-five years, many family members, especially children, still experience the negative effects of divorce. Children are also negatively impacted by violence and abuse within the home, with nearly 6 million children abused each year. To find more information on child abuse, visit the U. Amato, Paul. Children are more likely to live with only one parent among Latino and especially African American families than among white and Asian American families.

Moreover, African American, Latino, and Native American children and their families are especially likely to live in poverty. As a result, they are at much greater risk for the kinds of problems outlined earlier for children living in poverty. Beyond these cold facts lie other racial and ethnic differences in family life Taylor, Taylor, R.

Minority families in the United States: A multicultural perspective 3rd ed. Studies of Latino and Asian American families find they have especially strong family bonds and loyalty. The status of the African American family has been the source of much controversy for several decades.

This controversy stems from several related statistics. Two of these we noted earlier: the large number of single-parent households among African Americans and their large number of children in such households. A third statistic concerns the number of births out of wedlock. Many scholars attribute the high number of fatherless families among African Americans to the forcible separation of families during slavery and to the fact that so many young black males today are unemployed, in prison or jail, or facing other problems Patterson, Patterson, O.

Rituals of blood: Consequences of slavery in two American centuries.

Effects of Corporal Punishment on Children

Haskins, R. Moynihan was right: Now what? But other observers argue that this blame is misplaced to at least some extent. Allen, W. Comparative perspectives on black family life: Uncommon explorations of a common subject. New York, NY: Touchstone. The problems African Americans face, they add, stem to a large degree from their experience of racism, segregated neighborhoods, lack of job opportunities, and other structural difficulties Sampson, Sampson, R.

Racial stratification and the durable tangle of neighborhood inequality. Even if fatherless families contribute to these problems, these other factors play a larger role.

How should parents raise their children? We can talk about how much time parents should spend with their children, how often they should read to them, what time they should put them to bed, and other topics. But for many people the question of raising children means how parents should discipline their children.


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While no one right answer to this question exists that will satisfy everyone, scholars identify at least four styles of discipline Welch, Welch, K. Family life now 2nd ed. We will look briefly at these types and at a related issue, spanking. The first style of discipline, and the one that most childhood scholars favor, is called authoritative or firm-but-fair discipline.

When their children do misbehave, the parents patiently explain to them why their behavior was wrong and, if necessary, discipline them with time-outs, groundings, and similar responses. They rarely, if ever, spank their children and in general provide them much emotional support. Ginsburg, K. Associations between parenting styles and teen driving, safety-related behaviors and attitudes.

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Pediatrics, 4 , — Many parents instead practice authoritarian discipline. When their children misbehave, the parents may yell at them and punish them with relatively frequent and even harsh spankings. Although these parents think such punishment is necessary to teach kids how to behave, many childhood experts think their authoritarian discipline ironically produces children who are more likely to misbehave McKee et al. McKee, L.

Corporal Punishment and Low Income Mothers: The Role of Family Structure, Race, and Class in America Corporal Punishment and Low Income Mothers: The Role of Family Structure, Race, and Class in America
Corporal Punishment and Low Income Mothers: The Role of Family Structure, Race, and Class in America Corporal Punishment and Low Income Mothers: The Role of Family Structure, Race, and Class in America
Corporal Punishment and Low Income Mothers: The Role of Family Structure, Race, and Class in America Corporal Punishment and Low Income Mothers: The Role of Family Structure, Race, and Class in America
Corporal Punishment and Low Income Mothers: The Role of Family Structure, Race, and Class in America Corporal Punishment and Low Income Mothers: The Role of Family Structure, Race, and Class in America
Corporal Punishment and Low Income Mothers: The Role of Family Structure, Race, and Class in America Corporal Punishment and Low Income Mothers: The Role of Family Structure, Race, and Class in America
Corporal Punishment and Low Income Mothers: The Role of Family Structure, Race, and Class in America Corporal Punishment and Low Income Mothers: The Role of Family Structure, Race, and Class in America

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